Spatial data analysis uses the geographic inquiry process when approaching a spatial problem and the visualization needed for more informed decision making. This process includes determination of required datasets, a critical assessment of available data, and necessary preparation of data. The spatial and temporal extent, the project scope, and any contextual datasets that lend themselves to framing a problem, are also considered. This presentation will provide several examples of how the geographic inquiry process is applied to large spatial datasets and the types of spatial analysis that can be performed. Special attention will be paid to the ethical obligations cartographers must consider when producing spatial data visualization products.